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above the Varteg Mountain and takes it's course thence to Pontypool - The chief
Parishes are those of Aberystruth on the North West, Bedwellty Mynddislwyn
(or Monythusloyne) to the Southward and Trevethin which includes Pontypool
and the Mountains to the North of it

The whole of this extensive area above described abounds in Mines of Iron &
Coal and owing to these advantages it has excited of late Years a spirit of enterprize
to a great extent so that almost every Valley and slope is now studded with Iron
furnaces and Coal Works and their accompanying Towns or Villages in which Capital
to an immense amount has been embarked and is now employed - The consequence has been that for the last 30 years and especially within the last 15 years, the Population
has from a scanty and scattered race, grown rife into one of immense extent and
probably may now be estimated at about 40,000
- This population in a great
degree is not a native and settled one, but consists of a mixed and fluctuating multitude from various parts of the Empire attracted thither by the almost certain
expectation of employment and by the high wages which that employment obtains
A system of organization among them seems to have subsisted for some time & probably
began soon after the repeal of the Combination Statutes for purposes different from those to
which it has lately been applied - It is not surprising that amidst such a mass as above described what is called Chartism should be introduced & being introduced should flourish
under the existing organization - accordingly at Lodges formed & chiefly held at Beer houses Chartism was published and encouraged, Members were enrolled & received Cards
of admission and physical force was advocated, Public meetings were also called occasionally
at which the leading Instigators of Chartism were present & addressed the People

These proceedings finally terminated in the outbreak on the night of Sunday the
3d of Novr last and it is one of the remarkable features of this insurrection that it
was known but a few hours before it burst
forth, a circumstance which shews
the secrecy as well as strength of the Organization.

On the night in question the whole district above described was literally in arms, moving towards one common point, viz Risca, where or in the neighbourhood of
which it was intended that they should unite their forces & march to Newport with
the object that will hereafter appear- The Defts Frost, Williams, & Wm Jones seem to have
been the prime movers of this outbreak, the first of these is a Draper having a Shop
at Newport
where he has lived with his family and carried on the Trade for about 19 years-
During the later part of this period he has been an Agitator of ultra principles & was at

the time in question under Prosecution for Seditious language at one of these Public meetings

The next Deft Zephaniah Williams is a Master Collier and keeps a Beer House (the Royal Oak) at the Coal Brook
Vale Iron Works
which are situated nearby at the head of theNantyglo (or little Ebbw) Vale, He
bore a character generally respectable & was a man of considerable influence among his class
- Of late however his

[Annotations in left margin:]
3 November
[bracketed alongside ] }Leaders

2 [encircled]
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